In the middle of a dark night, a lone rowboat crosses the Long Island Sound. The date is Sept. 12, 1776. A few weeks prior, the British army, under the command of Gen. William Howe, had successfully invaded Long Island. George Washington, in defeat, retreated to Manhattan. He was desperate to gain any bit of intelligence on the British army's next plan of attack. One young man in this boat, by the name of Nathan Hale, had volunteered to travel behind enemy lines as a spy.
Third Session of the Fourteenth Parliament of Great Britain
The King’s Speech on the Opening Session October 31, 1776. The King came to the House of Peers and opened the Session with the following Speech to both Houses
George III of the United Kingdom
October 31, 1776
Joint Session of the House of Peers
“My Lords, and Gentlemen,
“Nothing could have afforded me so much satisfaction; as to have been able to inform you, at the opening of this session, that the troubles which have so long distracted my colonies in North America were at an end; and that my unhappy people, recovered from their delusion; had delivered themselves from the oppression of their leaders, and returned to their duty. But so daring and desperate is the spirit of those leaders, whose object has always been dominion and power, that they have now openly renounced all allegiance to the crown, and all political connection with this country: they have rejected, with circumstances of indignity and insult, the means of conciliation held out to them under the authority of our commission; and have presumed to set up their rebellious confederacies for independent states. If their treason be suffered to take root, much mischief must grow from it, to he safety of my loyal colonies, to the commerce of my kingdoms, and indeed to the present system of all Europe. One great advantage, however, will be derived from the object of the rebels being openly avowed, and clearly understood; we shall have unanimity at home, founded in the general conviction of the justice and necessity of our measures.
“I am happy to inform you, that, by the blessing of Divine Providence, on the good conduct and valour of my officers and force by sea and land, and on the zeal and bravery of the auxiliary troops in my sevice, Canada is recovered; and although, from unavoidable delays, the operations at New York could not begin before the month of August, the success in that province has been so important as to give the strongest hopes of the most decisive good consequences: but, notwithstanding this fair prospect, we must, at all events, prepare for another campaign.
“I continue to receive assurances of amity from the several courts of Europe; and am using my utmost endeavors to conciliate unhappy differences between two neighboring powers; and I still hope, that all misunderstandings may be removed, and Europe continue to enjoy the inestimable blessings of peace: I think nevertheless that, in the present situation of affairs, it is expedient that we should be in a respectable state of defense at home.
“Gentlemen of the House of Commons,
“I will order the Estimates for the ensuing year to be laid before you. It is matter of real concern to me, that the important considerations which I have stated to you, must necessarily be followed by great expense: I doubt not; however, but that my faithful Commons will readily and cheerfully grant me such supplies as the maintenance of the honor of my crown, the vindication of the just rights of parliament, and the public welfare, should be found to require.
“My Lord, and Gentlemen,
“In this arduous contest I can have no other object but to promote the true interests of all my subjects. No people ever enjoyed more happiness, or lived under a milder government, than those now revolted provinces: the improvements in every art, of which they boast, declare it: their numbers, their wealth, their strength, by sea and land, which they think sufficient to enable them to make head against the whole power of the mother country, are inrefragable proofs of it. My desire is to restore to them the blessings of law and liberty, equally enjoyed by every British subject, which they have fatally and desperately exchanged for the calamities of war, and the arbitrary tyranny of chiefs.